Prevalence of paralysis in the United States

In 2013, the Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation unveiled staggering statistics based on research into the prevalence of paralysis across the U.S.

According to the study, there are nearly 1 in 50 people living with paralysis – approximately 5.4 million people. That's the same number of people as the combined populations of Los Angeles, Philadelphia, and Washington D.C. And that number is nearly 40 percent higher than previous estimates showed.

We all know someone -- a brother, sister, friend, neighbor, or colleague -- living with paralysis. These aren't strangers. They are only one degree of separation from all of us.

Researchers designed and conducted an exhaustive survey of more than 70,000 household across the country. More than 30 experts in paralysis and statistics, including those from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and 14 leading universities and medical centers helped to develop and set the parameters for the study.

This study represents one of the largest population based samples of any disability ever conducted.

What did we learn?

This research revealed some important findings:

  • Paralysis is dramatically more widespread than previously thought. Approximately 1.7 percent of the U.S. population, or 5,357,970 people reported they were living with some form of paralysis, defined by the study as a central nervous system disorder resulting in difficulty or inability to move the upper or lower extremities.
  • The leading cause of paralysis was stroke (33.7 percent), followed by spinal cord injury (27.3 percent) and multiple sclerosis (18.6 percent).
  • People living with paralysis have households with lower incomes. Roughly 28% of households with a person who is paralyzed make less than $15,000 per year.
  • On the employment front, 15.5% of individuals living with paralysis are employed versus 63.1% who are not living with a disability. Additionally, 41.8% of those living with paralysis indicated they were unable to work.

*The overall pie chart represents the causes of paralysis for 1,079,866 valid responses. Of the 1.4 million persons who reported a spinal cord injury, the cause of paralysis could not be determined for 26% (n=382,334) due to missing, unintelligible, or incomplete data.

Why is this research important?

These findings have major implications for the treatment of spinal cord injury and paralysis-related diseases -- not only for those living with these conditions, but also for their families, caregivers, health care providers, and employers.

For example, as the number of people living with paralysis and spinal cord injuries increases, so do the costs associated with treating them. Each year, paralysis and spinal cord injuries cost the health care system billions of dollars.

Spinal cord injuries alone cost roughly $40.5 billion annually -- a 317 percent increase from costs estimated in 1998 ($9.7 billion).

People living with paralysis are often unable to afford health insurance that adequately covers the complex complications that are commonly linked with these conditions. And, like many of those living with chronic illness, they are frequently forced to rely on friends or family members to serve as their primary caregivers.

More than 50 million people each year provide this kind of care, the value of which is estimated to be $306 billion annually, twice the $158 billion spent on home care and nursing home services combined.

Ensuring that the millions of people living with paralysis have access to the health care they need, as well as quality jobs and education, requires a reinvigorated and informed discussion about how better resources and policies for people with disabilities will not only help save billions of dollars but, above all, spark additional support around the discovery of effective treatments and therapies.

What’s next?

The 2013 study on the prevalence of paralysis was a more in-depth survey compared to the original study that was published in 2009. Given the scope of over 70,000 households in the U.S., these findings reflect the realities of living with a disability and the need for greater discussion on how we can better support the millions of Americans living with paralysis.

Over the years, the Reeve Foundation has shared these findings with congressional leaders, corporate executives, members of the media and other industry authorities to create a swell of advocacy to collectively combat the drivers of inequality and eradicate the obstacles to freedom faced by people living with paralysis.

There is tremendous power in these numbers. By demonstrating the sheer impact of paralysis across the nation, from a health, societal, and financial perspective, we are creating a framework to keep our mission moving forward -- to enhance quality of life and find cures for paralysis in the here-and-now.

Download Paralysis in the U.S. Policy Brief.

Download Prevalence and Causes of Paralysis -- United States, 2013 from Research and Practice.

The National Paralysis Resource Center website is supported by the Administration for Community Living (ACL), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) as part of a financial assistance award totaling $8,700,000 with 100 percent funding by ACL/HHS. The contents are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the official views of, nor an endorsement, by ACL/HHS, or the U.S. Government.